the least populous of the seven sovereign emirates in the United Arab Emirates, located in the north of the country. The emirate is ruled by Saud bin Rashid Al Mu’alla. The emirate had 62,000 inhabitants in 2003 and has an area of 750 square kilometers.
The ruler of Umm ALQuwain : Sheikh Saud Al Mualla and his Crown Prince is Sheikh Rashid Mualla.
Umm al-Quwain holds significant archaeological interest, with major finds at both Tell Abraq and Al Dour. Arrowheads and other polished flint tools have been unearthed in various sites across the UAE while pieces of Ubaid pottery have been unearthed along the shores of the emirate. All evidence obtained so far indicate that contact with Mesopotamia existed as early as the 5th millennium BC as an indigenous ceramic industry did not emerge until the 3rd century BC.
During November to March,the average temperature is 26C at daytime and 15C at night (79F to 59F), but it can rise over 40C  (104F) in the peak of the summer and the humidity levels. The rainfall is minimal and averages 42 millimeters a year. The coastline experiences cooling sea breezes during the day.
Al-Sinniyah island, close to the town of Umm al-Qaiwain is home to the UAE’s largest Socotra Cormorant colony, with over 15,000 pairs making it the third largest colony in the world. Arabian gazelle have been introduced to Sinniyah and appear to be prospering. Marine life is remarkable for its abundance and diversity. Blacktip reef sharks patrol the outer shoreline, while green turtles are ubiquitous in the inner leads in particular.
Umm Al Quwain Fort: A fort which was once home to the emirate’s ruler and guarded the entrance to the old town, overseeing the sea on one side and the creek on the other. It eventually became a police station then a museum. The museum now houses artifacts found at important nearby sites including Al-Dour and houses a collection of weapons that were used through the emirate’s history.
Old Harbor: An old harbor located in the old town overlooking the traditional dhow building yard where skilled craftsmen continue to assemble these traditional boats. The harbor is surrounded by old coral stone houses that display features of the original architecture and intricate sculptured plaster work.